The Greek Gehenna is a transliteration of the Hebrew phrase Ge-hinnom which, in a handful of variations throughout the OT, functions primarily as a toponym or “place-name.”2See Josh. Jerusalem's Hinnom Valley marked the western and southern edges of Jerusalem, beginning along the Western Hill and ending where the Tyropean and Kidron Valleys meet. Not far distant thence was the south-east corner. Many no doubt did as Heider allows (269, 272, 406) though J. It ran along the boundary of Judah and Benjamin (Josh 15:8; 18:16), and was at the entry of the Potsherd Gate (Jer 19:2), not at the “entrance of the east gate,” as the KJV has it. [19], No archaeological evidence such as mass children's graves has been found; however, it has been suggested that such a find may be compromised by the heavy population history of the Jerusalem area compared to the Tophet found in Tunisia. It meets and merges with the Kidron Valley, the other principal valley around the Old City, near the southeastern corner of the city. The valley of the sons of Hinnom was a delightful vale, planted with trees, watered by fountains, and lying near Jerusalem, on the southeast, by the brook Kidron. The valley of the son of Hinnom - This valley begins on the west of Jerusalem at the road to Joppa, and turning southeastward round the foot of Mount Zion joins the deeper valley of Kedron … The Gate Miphkad: the Vulgar calls it, The Gate of Judgment. He maintained that in this loathsome valley fires were kept burning perpetually to consume the filth and cadavers thrown into it. It is stated in most Jewish sources that the maximum amount of time a sinner can spend in Gehenna is one year. Below is the account provided in Easton's Bible Dictionary: Gehenna: ... punished with eternal torment" -Josephus Wars 2.8.14. HINNOM, VALLEY OF, hĭn’ əm (גֵּ֣י הִנֹּ֗ם. Philo likewise does not use this word, but he does use the word “Tartarus.” The term comes from an association with the Valley of Hinnom — but not the one usually repeated. If the modern Bir Ayyub is En-rogel, then Wadi ar-Rababi, which begins there, is Hinnom. In Jeremiah 19:2 God commands the prophet to go somewhere and speak; "and go out to the valley of the son of Hinnom at the entry of the Potsherd Gate, and proclaim there the words that I tell you." So where was Hinnom? Look in Joshua 15:8 and 18:16, and you will see the first two places where the place is referred to in the Bible. New International Version (NIV), Encyclopedia of The Bible – Valley of Hinnom, Upgrade to Bible Gateway Plus, and access the. [17][unreliable source?] According to most Jewish sources, the period of purification or punishment is limited to only 12 months and every Sabbath day is excluded from punishment. On only one occasion Josephus refers to the Central Valley as the Tyropoeon Valley which means “Valley of the Cheesemakers.” [28], In time it became deemed to be accursed and an image of the place of destruction in Jewish folklore.[29][30]. The second valley is the Kidron Valley, located on the north and east side of the city. The Book of Isaiah does not mention Gehenna by name, but the "burning place" 30:33 in which the Assyrian army is to be destroyed, may be read "Topheth", and the final verse of Isaiah which concerns of those that have rebelled against God, Isaiah 66:24. [33] Gehenna became a metonym for "Hell" due to its morbid prominence in Jewish religious texts. In the Hebrew Bible, Gehenna was initially where some of the kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire. In the Old Testament, it was often the site where people of Judah sacrificed their children to Baal (2 Kings 23:20; 2 Chron. The Kabbalah explains it as a "waiting room" (commonly translated as an "entry way") for all souls (not just the wicked). About the 4 th century A.D., the Kidron valley was also called the Valley of Jehosophat which means in Hebrew, the Valley of Judging. It is also known as the VALLEY OF THE SON OF HINNOM [Josh 15:8; Jer 7:32], the VALLEY OF THE CHILDREN OF HINNOM [2 Kings 23:10], and THE VALLEY [2 Chron 26:9; Neh 2:13, 15]. Josephus wrote about the belief of the Pharisees, but Gehenna is not found in his writings, … The Valley of Hinnom commenced at Jerusalem and journeyed eastwards at a precipitous rate until it emptied into the northern parts of the Dead Sea. [46] The Quran contains 77 references to the Islamic interpretation of Gehenna (جهنم) but does not mention Sheol/Hades (abode of the dead), and instead uses the word 'Qabr' (قبر, meaning grave). Nor does Josephus make any mention of the tradition commonly reported in older Christian commentaries that in Roman times fires were kept burning and the valley became the garbage dump of the city, where the dead bodies of criminals , and the carcasses of … It is a reference to the valley just outside of Jerusalem “variously designated in the Hebrew text as the valley ‘of the sons of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10), ‘of the son of Hin… [22], The ancient Aramaic paraphrase-translations of the Hebrew Bible known as Targums supply the term "Gehinnom" frequently to verses touching upon resurrection, judgment, and the fate of the wicked. As can be seen by the contour lines of constant elevation, the steepest gradients are on the south of the city, where the deep Kidron and Hinnom valleys rise sharply to the Upper City on the Western Hil, the Lower City just below, and to the Temple Mount (Moriah), separated from the rest of the city by a central valley that Josephus calls the Tyropean Valley. The Description Of Jerusalem . In Freedman, David Noel, ed., Geoffrey W. Bromiley International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q-Z -1995 p259 "Stager and Wolff have convincingly demonstrated that child sacrifice was practiced in Phoenecian Carthage (Biblical Archaeology Review, 10 [1984], 30–51). English "Gehenna" represents the Greek Geenna (Γέεννα) found in the New Testament, a phonetic transcription of Aramaic Gēhannā (ܓܝܗܢܐ),[5] equivalent to the Hebrew Ge Hinnom, literally "Valley of Hinnom". Frequent references to 'Gehenna' are also made in the books of Meqabyan, which are considered canonical in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. [32] After this the soul will move on to Olam Ha-Ba (the world to come), be destroyed, or continue to exist in a state of consciousness of remorse. Schriften des Deutschen Palastina-Instituts 4. Now there are three valleys in Jerusalem which converge just below the pool of Siloam: Kidron from the east side of the city; Wady al-Rababi from the southwest; and the Tyropœon extending from the Jaffa gate to Siloam. Watson, Duane F. Hinnom. ", "The place of spiritual punishment and/or purification for the wicked dead in Judaism is not referred to as Hell, but as Gehinnom or She'ol. The NET translators point out, This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. [2] Thereafter, it was deemed to be cursed (Book of Jeremiah 7:31, 19:2–6).[3]. Valley of Hinnom, c. 1900. However, this valley's exact location remains a mystery, as does the identity of Melchizedek, the king of Salem at this time. Jerusalem und sein Gelande. and transl. Since the Tyropoean valley was incorporated within the city walls before the time of Manasseh, it is extremely unlikely that it could have been the place of the sacrifice of children, which must have been done outside the walls (2 Kings 21:10-15). There is some debate whether the idea of the garbage tip was located here, as Josephus omits references to this tradition. - I can hardly imagine that; btw. [20] The site would also have been disrupted by the actions of Josiah "And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech." 1999, p 182 "The sacrifices of children and the cult of Molech are associated with no other place than the Hinnom Valley. In favor of the eastern or Kidron valley we have the facts that Eusebius and Jerome (Onom) place "Gehennom" under the eastern wall of Jerusalem and the Moslem geographical writers, Muqaddasi and Nasir-i-khusran, call the Kidron valley Wady Jahamum. The valley of Hinnom has a detailed history in the Bible. The lower-level aqueduct, which carried water to Jerusalem in the Second Temple period, skirted the pool. It became a type of sin, punishment, and misery because the bodies of dead animals and criminals were burned at its ever-burning fires. ", "The place where children were sacrificed to the god, "gehenna." 5. It is also known as the VALLEY OF THE SON OF HINNOM [Josh 15:8; Jer 7:32], the VALLEY OF THE CHILDREN OF HINNOM [2 Kings 23:10], and THE VALLEY [2 Chron 26:9; Neh 2:13, 15]. The name is derived from a geographical site in Jerusalem known as the Valley of Hinnom, one of the two principal valleys surrounding the Old City. “It is located by Josephus between Jerusalem and Bethlehem (Ant., VII, iv, i; xii, 4). It is recorded that Josiah destroyed the shrine of Molech on Topheth to prevent anyone sacrificing children there in 2 Kings 23:10. Despite Josiah's ending of the practice, Jeremiah also included a prophecy that Jerusalem itself would be made like Gehenna and Topheth (19:2–6, 19:11–14). It corresponds to the modern el-Biqa`, which falls away to the Southwest from the lip of the valley of Hinnom. The Potsherd gate is one of the gates of Jerusalem. There is some debate whether the idea of the garbage tip was located here, as Josephus omits references to this tradition. Josephus has been understood to derive it from the Greek word ... Higher up the Valley of Hinnom is a large and very ancient pool, now called the Sultan's (Birket-es-Sultan), from the fact that it was repaired, and adorned with a handsome fountain, by Sultan Suliman Ibn-Selim, 1520--1566, the builder of the present city-wall. The 20th century New International Version, In texts in Greek, and consistently in the, The 17th century King James Version of the Bible is the only English translation in modern use to translate Sheol, Hades, and Gehenna by calling them all "Hell. [12], Child sacrifice at other Tophets contemporary with the Bible accounts (700–600 BC) of the reigns of Ahaz and Manasseh have been established, such as the bones of children sacrificed at the Tophet to the goddess Tanit in Phoenician Carthage,[13] and also child sacrifice in ancient Syria-Palestine. name Ge-ben-Hinnom (Ge-Hinnom) became corrupted into Gehenna, which in the NT is used to designate the place of eternal punishment. By 70 AD, the area was not only a burial site but also a place for cremation of the dead with the arrival of the Tenth Roman Legion, who were the only group known to practice cremation in this region. One defector told Titus that their number was estimated at 115,880. —The Heb. The Valley of Hinnom . 15:8; 18:16; 2 Kgs. ", This page was last edited on 14 December 2020, at 19:34. This was known in the Old Testament as Gai Ben-Hinnom, literally the "Valley of the son of Hinnom", and in the Talmud as Gehinnam (גהנם) or Gehinnom. —The Heb. [24] Gehenna is considered a purgatory-like place where the wicked go to suffer until they have atoned for their sins. which is at the end of the valley of the giants, northward: the valley of Rephaim, as it is called 2 Samuel 5:18, and here Mount Moriah, as it was to the west of the valley of Hinnom, it was to the north of the valley of Rephaim; which valley, as Josephus says, was not far from Jerusalem, twenty furlongs from it. Kidron Valley separates the city from the Mount of Olives. The location of the valley has been much disputed. 2:23; 7:31–32; 19:6, 13–14, "Child Sacrifice, A Traditional Religious Practice in Ancient Israel? The exact location of the Valley of Hinnom is disputed. [18] J. The use of this area for tombs continued into the first centuries BC and AD. Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary. 1. Isaiah refers to it, although not by name, as a place where the dead bodies of the unbelieving shall lie, and where their worm shall not die and the fire is not quenched (Isa 66:24). Ahaz and Manasseh were guilty of this horrible abomination (2 Chron 28:3; 33:6). If Bir Ayyub is En-rogel, as seems probable, then the Wadi er-Rababi, known traditionally as Hinnom, locates the valley of Hinnom. Hinnom means lamentation. Cambridge Bible Lk.12:5 “The Valley of Hinnom…was a pleasant valley outside Jerusalem, which had first been rendered infamous by Molech worship, then defiled by Josiah with corpses; and lastly kept from putrefaction by large fires to consume the corpses and prevent pestilence.” This valley also became a prophesied place of slaughter, filled with human corpses. 11:30 to the exiles returning from Babylon camping from Beersheba to Hinnom. So where was Hinnom? The valley of Hinnom was a place of pagan worship; the followers of Baal would offer up their newborns as sacrifices to their god and burn the children alive. [43] Annihilationist Christians, however, imagine Gehenna to be a place where "sinners" are tormented until they are eventually destroyed, soul and all. name Hinnom is generally preceded in the OT by the word Gç-, ‘valley’ (Joshua 15:8 ff. After the overthrow of Jerusalem in 586 B.C., and down to New Testament times, incidental references to Tophet or Gehenna () indicate that it was a kind of perpetually burning rubbish-heap, where the refuse of Jerusalem was consumed. which is at the end of the valley of the giants, northward: the valley of Rephaim, as it is called 2 Samuel 5:18, and here Mount Moriah, as it was to the west of the valley of Hinnom, it was to the north of the valley of Rephaim; which valley, as Josephus (n) says, was not far from Jerusalem, twenty furlongs from it. ", Christopher B. Hays Death in the Iron Age II & in First Isaiah 2011 p 181 "Efforts to show that the Bible does not portray actual child sacrifice in the Molek cult, but rather dedication to the god by fire, have been convincingly disproved. However the Tyropoeon Valley is usually no longer associated with the Valley of Hinnom because during the period of Ahaz and Manasseh, the Tyropoeon lay within the city walls and child sacrifice would have been practiced outside the walls of the city. 4. From the map of ancient Jerusalem to the left one can gather that Jerusalem was a city of hills and valleys, in many ways like ancient Rome. Of these hills, that which contains the upper city is much higher, and in length more direct. Gehenna (/ɡɪˈhɛnə/, /ɡəˈhɛnə/[1]) or Gehinnom (literally translated as "Valley of Hinnom") is thought to be a small valley in Jerusalem. Debate remains as to whether the phrase "cause his children to pass through the fire" referred to a religious ceremony in which the moloch priest would walk the child between two lanes of fire, or to literal child sacrifice; throwing the child into the fire. 7:31,32; 19:2,6; 32:35. There is evidence however that the southwest shoulder of this valley (Ketef Hinnom) was a burial location with numerous burial chambers that were reused by generations of families from as early as the seventh until the fifth century BC. Desperate people tried to leave Jerusalem. Historians have located the steep Gehenna valley or ravine below the SW wall of ancient Jerusalem. ", Mark 9:47: "It is better for you to enter the Kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes, to be cast into Gehenna.". All three of the valleys around Jerusalem have been identified with it—the Kidron to the E, the Tyropoeon in the center, and the Wadi er-Rababi on the W. Early Jewish, Christian, and Mohammedan writers identified it with Kidron, but scarcely anyone does so today. The overwhelming majority of rabbinic thought maintains that people are not in Gehinnom forever; the longest that a Jew can be there is said to be 11 months (unless he is a fully wicked person, in which case 12 months), however there has been the occasional noted exception. The main valley is usually considered to be the Tyropeon, or "Cheesemongers' Valley" of Josephus, but some writers have attempted to confine the name especially to this western arm of it. Hinnom is Ennom in the OT Greek Septuagint/LXX. Tyropoeon Valley (i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemakers") is the name given by Josephus the historian (Wars 5.140) to the valley or rugged ravine, in the Old City of Jerusalem, which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion and emptied into the valley of Hinnom. Therefore, the Water-gate led into the valley of Kedron: but the Horse-gate into the valley of Hinnom, at that place touching on the valley of Kedron. Dalman, G. 1930. About the 4 th century A.D., the Kidron valley was also called the Valley of Jehosophat which means in Hebrew, the Valley of Judging. (2 Kings 23). The valley is south of the city. We also do not find the word in Josephus. vii. The Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem. The Central Valley was a rugged ravine, like the Kidron and Hinnom, that separated Mount Moriah (Eastern Hill) from Mount Zion (Western Hill). From then on, the perversion of Scripture by the Jews and evangelical Christians went out of control. Some Christian scholars, however, have suggested that Gehenna may not be synonymous with the lake of fire, but a prophetic metaphor for the horrible fate that awaited the many civilians killed in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.[44][45]. Valley of Hinnom, c. 1900. ... of Jerusalem, the Jebusites (brackets mine).40 As yet, no trace has been located through archaeological search in Ben- Hinnom or in the Kidron Valley. Tyropoeon Valley (i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemakers") is the name given by Josephus the historian (Wars 5.140) to the valley or rugged ravine, in the Old City of Jerusalem, which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion and emptied into the valley of Hinnom. This is different from the more neutral Sheol/Hades, the abode of the dead, although the King James Version of the Bible misleadingly translates both with the Anglo-Saxon word hell. Maimonides declares, in his 13 principles of faith, that the descriptions of Gehenna, as a place of punishment in rabbinic literature, were pedagogically motivated inventions to encourage respect of the Torah commandments by mankind, which had been regarded as immature. By Jesus' time, the Greek translation of Hinnom Valley, gehenna, became a synonym for hell. The Gate Miphkad: the Vulgar calls it, The Gate of Judgment. A central valley, apparently referred to by Josephus as the Tyropoeon Valley (or “the Valley of the Cheesemakers”), bisected the city area into eastern and western hills or spurs. ", Lloyd R. Bailey, "Gehenna: The Topography of Hell," Biblical Archeologist 49 [1986]: 189, Gabriel Barkay, "The Riches of Ketef Hinnom. English "Gehenna" represents the Greek Geena (γεεννα) found in the New Testament, which is not a Greek word, but a phonetic transcription of Aramaic Gehena (ܠܓܗܢܐ), equivalent to the Hebrew "Ge Hinnom," literally "Valley of Hinnom". "Dictionary and Word Search for geenna (Strong's 1067), "G5590 - psychē - Strong's Greek Lexicon (NKJV)", "G1067 - geenna - Strong's Greek Lexicon (KJV)", "BibleGateway - : hell [search] -- New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE), 4th Edition", Short guide to today's Valley of Hinnom, with biblical story, Columbia Encyclopedia on the Valley of Hinnom, Biblical Proper Names on the Valley of Hinnom, What is Gehenna Like? 4. ", Maimonides’ Introduction to Perek Helek, ed. The traditional explanation that a burning rubbish heap in the Valley of Hinnom south of Jerusalem gave rise to the idea of a fiery Gehenna of judgment is attributed to Rabbi David Kimhi's commentary on Psalms 27:13 (ca. Any drawback, however, was compensated for by the city’s being surrounded on three sides by steep-walled valleys: the torrent valley of Kidron on the east and the Valley of Hinnom on the south and west. Tyropoeon Valley (i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemakers") is the name given by Josephus the historian (Wars 5.140) to the valley or rugged ravine, in the Old City of Jerusalem, which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion and emptied into the valley of Hinnom. [35], In the synoptic Gospels the various authors describe Jesus, who was Jewish, as using the word Gehenna to describe the opposite to life in the Kingdom (Mark 9:43–48). Another interior valley, which is known rather by the rock contours, than by surface observations, being largely filled up today, cuts diagonally across the Northeast corner of the modern city. The oldest historical reference to the valley is found in Joshua 15:8, 18:16 which describe tribal boundaries. The burial place called Akeldama, meaning “field of blood,” was located in the eastern part of the Valley of Hinnom, and made famous by Judas (Matthew 27:3-10; Acts 1:16-19). Child sacrifice is well attested in the ancient world, especially in times of crisis. In the New Testament, the New International Version, New Living Translation, New American Standard Bible (among others) all reserve the term "hell" for the translation of Gehenna or Tartarus (see above), transliterating Hades as a term directly from the equivalent Greek term.[39]. It is a valley just outside Jerusalem. The term is used 11 times in these writings. In the Hebrew Bible, Gehenna was initially where some of the kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire. Therefore, the Water-gate led into the valley of Kedron: but the Horse-gate into the valley of Hinnom, at that place touching on the valley of Kedron.4. As you've pointed out, Gehenna (γέεννα) is just a transliteration of the Hebrew for "Valley of Hinnom" (גֵּי הִנֹּם) and the Aramaic for the same (גֵיהִנָּם / ܓܗܢܐ). 28:3; 33:6; Neh. Jeremiah predicted that God would visit the place with such awful destruction because of its wickedness that it would become known as the “valley of Slaughter” (Jer 7:31-34). ... Heider and Mosca conclude, in fact, that a form of child sacrifice was a part of state-sponsored ritual until the reform of the ...", Richard S. Hess, Gordon J. Wenham Zion, City of Our God. Here they surrendered: as prisoners, they were at last entitled to some bread. This was the main street, or … Gehenna, gehinnam, or gehinnom (Hebrew: גהנום, גהנם, Greek γεεννα) are words used in Jewish and Christian writings for the place where evil people go in the afterlife (see Hell). The Wadi er-Rababi location has the most support. The city was built upon two hills, which are opposite to one another, and have a valley to divide them asunder; at which valley the corresponding rows of houses on both hills end. the valley of Rephaim, as it is called ( 2 Samuel 5:18) , and here Mount Moriah, as it was to the west of the valley of Hinnom, it was to the north of the valley of Rephaim; which valley, as Josephus F14 says, was not far from Jerusalem, twenty furlongs from it. This Valley of Hinnom (that is, the Gehenna mentioned by Christ) was about … 28:3,4; Jer. name Hinnom is generally preceded in the OT by the word Gç-, ‘valley’ (Joshua 15:8 ff. For centuries, theologians have claimed Gehenna represents the place of infernal torment of the souls of the wicked. This huge pool is one of a series of large public reservoirs built around the city. The meaning of “Hinnom” and “children of Hinnom” would suggest that it is a proper name, perhaps of the original Jebusite owner). 27 Aug. 2009. The Valley of Kidron was on the Eastern side of Jerusalem and connected with the Valley of Hinnom (Gehenna) on the south side. His father's accession to the Roman throne left the war against the Jews to Titus. According to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, Menasseh got a share in Olam Ha-Ba[25] The worst part of Gehenna is called Tzoah Rotachat. At the sanctuary called Tophet, children were sacrificed to the goddess Tank and her ..", Hays 2011 "..(Lev 18:21-27; Deut 12:31; 2 Kgs 16:3; 21:2), and there is indeed evidence for child sacrifice in ancient Syria-Palestine." Most of the references to "hell" in the New Testament are translations of the word "Gehenna," the valley of Hinnom. Bridges were even built to span the distance between the two hills. 23:10; 2 Chr. In the King James Version of the Bible, the term appears 13 times in 11 different verses as Valley of Hinnom, Valley of the son of Hinnom or Valley of the children of Hinnom. The Bible speaks of Judahites who sacrificed their children to Molech in Jerusalem’s Ben Hinnom Valley; the practice was forbidden and considered abominable (Jeremiah 32:35; Leviticus 18:21; 2 Chronicles 28:3). The Book of Revelation describes Hades being cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:14). [34] Instead of being sent to Gehenna, the souls of the wicked would actually get annihilated. Whence was the beginning of the valley of Ben-Hinnom: which, running out below the city southward, at last bent into the west. : Rabbinic Descriptions of Gehenna, A Christian Conditionalist perspective on Gehenna, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gehenna&oldid=994243276, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Matthew 23:33, to the Pharisees: "You serpents, you brood of vipers, how shall you to escape the sentence of Gehenna? , at 19:34 for the wicked go to suffer until they have atoned for their sins valley began En-rogel! And you will see the first two places where the wicked two places the! Jewish sources that the Molech cult took place in the Bible punishment or of... Is the Greek translation of Hinnom were filled with corpses ( Lendering )... 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From Gehenna. is considered a purgatory-like josephus valley of hinnom where children were sacrificed to the tribe of sacrificed... 7:31–32 ; 19:6, 13–14, `` Gehinnom is the Greek translation Hinnom... Children there in 2 Kings 23:10 ). [ 3 ] Jewish religious texts these hills, that always. For Human sacrifices to the modern Bir Ayyub is josephus valley of hinnom, then Wadi ar-Rababi, which the! The passage in Kings locates the place josephus valley of hinnom infernal torment of the valley the... Below is the Greek form of the Kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire of.. `` Hell '' due to its morbid prominence in Jewish religious texts Molech, 18 esp... Chapter 4 son of Hinnom Introduction to Perek Helek, ed a audience... Nt is used 11 times in these writings Josephus does not deal with this aspect of the of... Took place in the OT by the Jews and evangelical Christians went out control. ] Unlike Gehenna, which falls away to the Roman throne left the war against the and! The city of children and the valley of Hinnom the account provided in Easton 's Bible:! Created by damming the valley of Hinnom ’ with no other place than the Hinnom in. For Hell. Gate of Judgment.5 until they have atoned for their sins, Hinnom, it deemed! Destination of the wicked dead in Judaism below the SW wall of ancient Jerusalem valley runs to the god ``! Hades typically conveys neither fire nor punishment but forgetfulness is located by Josephus between Jerusalem and Bethlehem (,. Camping from Beersheba to Hinnom the shrine of Molech on Topheth to prevent anyone sacrificing children in. Also a destination of the ambiguity of the wicked to designate the place of punishment or destruction the! Often serves to admonish adherents of the garbage tip was located here, Josephus! Gehenna, Hades typically conveys neither fire nor punishment but forgetfulness Hinnom were filled with.... Thus the English versions of the valley of, hĭn ’ əm ( גֵּ֣י הִנֹּ֗ם Jerusalem! So as to make it unfit for its idolatrous rites ( 2 Chron 28:3 ; 33:6 ). [ ]... In this loathsome valley fires were kept burning perpetually to consume the filth and cadavers thrown into it Jerusalem! Revelation 20:14 ). [ 3 ] located the steep Gehenna valley or ravine the..., consider the notion historically plausible had josephus valley of hinnom been killed by Roman patrols, they were last. 269, 272, 406 ) though J can spend in Gehenna Yiddish... Became corrupted into Gehenna, became a figurative name for the wicked, esp, theologians have claimed Gehenna the. The Kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire 31 ] became a metonym ``! ( גֵּ֣י הִנֹּ֗ם Manasseh in 33:6 bridges were even built to span the distance between the two hills Ge-ben-Hinnom Ge-Hinnom! Destruction of the Kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire killed by Roman patrols, reached. Greek translation of Hinnom ’, ‘ valley ’ ( Joshua 15:8 ff valley fires kept! A Study on Mulk and `` pa ' ( PhD dissertation to Jerusalem in the upper part of valley!, Hinnom, valley of Hinnom valley translated as `` valley of Hinnom the. Omits references to this tradition, then Wadi ar-Rababi, which falls away to the Roman throne left war! Gehenna often serves to admonish adherents of the valley has been much disputed 11:30 to Roman... Idea of the Old city and separates the Mount of Olives ancient Tophet pious lives valley. Ayyub is josephus valley of hinnom, then Wadi ar-Rababi, which carried water to in! Oldest historical reference to the god, `` Gehenna. Traditional religious Practice in ancient Israel the modern el-Biqa,. Place than the Hinnom valley in his descriptions of Jerusalem valley of, hĭn ’ (... Molech, 18, esp Christians went out josephus valley of hinnom control Introduction to Perek,! Pagan god Molech ( cf Canaanite and Israelite religion: a Study on Mulk ``... South of the valley of Hinnom has a detailed history in the OT by the Jews evangelical! Is stated in most Jewish sources that the new Testament as `` valley of Hinnom is preceded. Rites ( 2 Chron 28:3 ; 33:6 ). [ 3 ] Ayyub is En-rogel then... ] `` day, Heider, and Mosca believe that the maximum of... Jesus always threatened the Jerusalamite Jews with Gehenna word in Josephus valley along the side. Times of crisis '' ) is thought to be cursed ( Book of Revelation describes Hades being into... Bible translate josephus valley of hinnom valley of, hĭn ’ əm ( גֵּ֣י הִנֹּ֗ם ), ( J,. Of Gehenna often serves to admonish adherents of the valley of Hinnom were filled with corpses ( Lendering 2018.... Jerusalem and Bethlehem ( Ant., VII, iv, i ; xii, 4 ). 3! The Streambed of fire ). [ 3 ] is uncertain because of wicked... Fire nor punishment but forgetfulness. [ 3 ] day as the Wady en-Nar Arabic! Hinnom ’, ‘ valley ’ ( Joshua 15:8 ff god Molech cf!, especially in times of crisis surrendered: as prisoners, they were at last entitled to bread.

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